Learning with Teams
By Janet Winston and Kimberly Vincent-Layton, 2015
Team learning is a real-world experience that benefits students beyond the confines of one project, one class, and even a college career. Teamwork is a valuable skill both in and outside the workplace. What does “Team” mean? TEAM stands for: Together Everyone Achieves More (Bo-Linn, 2014) Although we often hear complaints from students about “group work”, research consistently points to significant benefits of working in teams.
The terms Team-based Learning (TBL), Cooperative Learning and Collaborative Learning are often used interchangeably when discussing group learning because they all focus on active learning within small groups. However, there are some significant differences between these formats. Collaborative Learning is considered the least structured, followed by Cooperative Learning, and then with Team-based Learning the most structured. While Collaborative Learning tends to have the instructor as the authority, Cooperative Learning empowers the group/team and includes assigned roles. Team-based Learning has a very specific structure that includes four essential elements: permanent teams, readiness assurance, application activities, and peer evaluation. Each of these is discussed in detail at the Team-based Learning Collaborative website. In short, TBL incorporates teams that stay and work together through the term, pre-activities to get teams started, application activities that involve team problem solving, and finally, a peer evaluation component.
One of they keys to a successful team learning environment can be looked out through the lense of Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development. There are five stages including: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning (transforming). Each of these stages is important to the team process. Here are some suggested tools and strategies to ensure high-performing teams:
Forming/Storming: The Team Contract
Working together with classmates can be both challenging and rewarding, so it is important to start off on the right track by having them discuss and agree on how they will work together as a team.
Norming/Performing: Midpoint Feedback, incremental team feedback (the Feedback Form)
Adjourning (Transforming): Team Survey, Team Reflection
As you consider what structure you’d like to use in your classroom, take a look at the Team Resources below to understand how you might apply a specific format, or modify one to fit the needs of your students’ learning.
- Collaborative Learning
- Cooperative Learning
- Team-based Learning Collaborative
- Merlot Pedagogy Portal – Team-based Learning Resources
- Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development
- Cooperative Learning Guidelines
- Cooperative Learning Exercises
- Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique IF-AT Information
- Team Self and Peer Evaluation
- Team Reflection Survey
- Group Agreement Example
- Team Preference Sheet
- Peer and Self Assessment Form for Team Quizzes
- Peer Evaluation Final
- *Bo-Linn, Cheelan, University of Illinois Center for Innovation in Teaching and Learning, November 2014
- IF-AT Research Epstein 2002
- TBL Research Michaelsen 2014
Team-based Learning Collaborative www.teambasedlearning.org